sâmbătă, 31 octombrie 2009

Top 10 Drinking Countries

Number 10


Pure alcohol consumption: 14.2 liters per capita per year
Beer consumption: 35.5 liters per capita per year

When the French drink, they take their time and they drink wine. In North America, the French have a reputation for being sophisticated snobs; they are rude, we think, but they have good taste and they are wine connoisseurs. In this drinking country, wine and food go together like a baguette and chunk of brie. In other words, the French drink wine with most meals.

Despite regularly eating rich foods like pastries, cheeses and cream sauces, France has a remarkably low obesity rate, and this has everything to do with their method of consumption. Unlike North Americans who tend to shovel down processed foods as if eating were a rat race, the French eat leisurely. Perhaps less rushed to get back to their favorite TV show, they often have several courses, with wine and maybe a cigarette in between meals. And because wine and conversation play essential roles in their social ritual, getting a little tipsy on a bottle of Bordeaux actually helps digestion by slowing things down. In fact, maybe you should eat like the French.

Number 9


Pure alcohol consumption: 8.0 liters per capita per year

Like France, Italy is both a wine-producing and a wine-drinking country. And as in France, wine is an integral part of Italian gastronomy. Italians drink wine with meals, and they have no problem inviting the children to join them in doing so. The connection between food and booze is made clear by looking at Italian groves, where one commonly sees grapes growing alongside olive trees.

According to a 2007 U.S. Department of Commerce report, Americans import more table wine and vermouth from Italy than from any other country. This statistic speaks to the diverse array of quality Italian wines. As a result of its increased exportation, Italian wine has drastically improved over the past century. For example, producers in the Chianti region now increasingly stress grape quality over quantity. Chiantis are now made entirely of red Sangiovese grapes, which is perhaps Italy’s finest grape. In the past, Chianti was more of a rosée, blending the red with a little white wine to extend the batch.

Local Liquor
Grappa, a stiff sipping (or shooting) liqueur made from a by-product of the wine-making process.

Number 8

Czech Republic

Pure alcohol consumption: 11.8 liters per capita per year
Beer consumption: 156.9 liters per capita per year

The Czech Republic has a beer brewing and beer guzzling heritage. Since the 1930s the Czechs have been renowned for the quality of their brewing process, which traditionally includes open fermenters, long lagering times and no pasteurization. While standards have changed somewhat as a result of post-Velvet Revolution corporate expansion, lagers and pilsners from the Czech Republic remain some of the world’s finest beer. If you visit, be sure to do your drinking at brewpubs. One that especially deserves a visit is U Fleku, a legendary beer hall in Prague that has been around since the 15th century. It provides stunning examples of traditional Czech food, architecture and beer.

Local Liquor
Any Pilsner or Lager that strikes your fancy.

Number 7


Pure alcohol consumption: 10.5 liters per capita per year
Beer consumption: 116.8 liters per capita per year

It is remarkable but true that in Germany beer costs roughly the same as water. Germany is also a relatively liberal place, with booze being sold in grocery stores and gas stations and at newspaper stands. Drinking in public is also legal (criteria that definitely puts Germany on our top drinking countries list), so if you visit don’t be afraid to crack one open in a park or on public transit. Picnics and barbecues are also very common in large parks in most major cities, and the food is always washed down with beer. Then there is Oktoberfest. Held in Munich every October, this 16-day Bavarian beer festival celebrates the fall harvest with sausages, sauerkraut, Bavarian folklore, and oceans of beer.

Local Liquor
Wheat beer. A few brands include: Weizen, Weizenbock, Berliner Weisse, and Leipziger Gose.

Number 6


Pure alcohol consumption: 11.5 liters per capita per year
Beer consumption: 89.9 liters per capita per year

96% of 15-year-old Danes consider themselves drinkers, making Denmark a definite must in our list of top 10 drinking countries. This frightening statistic suggests that, like many northern European countries, Denmark has a fairly relaxed attitude vis-à-vis booze. They boast the lowest prices in Scandinavia, a fact that brings Swedes over by the boatload. Denmark also has a plethora of watering hole options. There are vinstues, which are old and traditional wine rooms. There are vaertshus, which tend to be seedy, grimy, dimly-lit, and smoke-filled dens. There are bodegas, which are French-style cafés, and kaffebars, where you can eat greasy food and drink by the bottle.

Local Liquor
Lager, Tuborg and Carlsberg are the ubiquitous brands.

Number 5


Pure alcohol consumption: 9.8 liters per capita per year
Beer consumption: 109.9 liters per capita per year

During the country's convict era, when Western Australia was used as a penal colony for the British Empire, rum was used as a currency. As a result, the colony’s residents were almost always inebriated and drinking was a natural social activity. It is perhaps for this reason that in Australia today it is considered terrible form to drink alone, and so Aussies are often on the lookout for a drinking buddy (no wonder they’re one of our top 10 drinking countries).

Until the 1970s, Australia’s per capita consumption rivaled Ireland and Germany, but Australia has been on the decline ever since. Anyone who has done some traveling in Europe or Australia knows that Aussies like to get liquored, and that the act of “shouting“ -- the pub ritual of buying a round -- remains a vital part of pub life throughout the land of Oz, making Australia one of our top 10 drinking countries.

Local Liquor
The Shiraz grape has found a home in Australian vineyards, and Shiraz wines are full of descriptions men love: bold, robust, rich.

Number 4


Pure alcohol consumption: 9.29 liters per capita per year

Vodka is a Russian word, and we all know where it leads. If you want to get wasted, drinking vodka like a Russian will take you to the promised land of blackouts and projectile vomiting. If you go to Russia, don’t count on fancy cocktails. Martinis were either born in Europe or the U.S., but they certainly aren’t from Russia, which is why it's one of our authentic drinking countries. Russian vodka drinkers shoot their vodka straight up, although some drink a little beer in between vodka shots. True  connoisseurs may frown upon the idea of mixing vodka and beer in the stomach, but there is a Russian proverb that states, “Vodka without beer is your money wasted.”

Number 3


Pure alcohol consumption: 10.4 liters per capita per year
Beer consumption: 99.0 liters per capita per year

When the English drink, they tend to go overboard. They drink bitters, milds, ales, stouts, porters, or the manly combo “a nip and a half” (a whisky and a half-pint). England also has a new 24-hour drinking law (to fall in line with the rest of the EU) that facilitates all-day consumption (not that the English weren’t acquitting themselves rather well before the new legislation). As England is the land of notorious binge drinkers, alcohol-related casualties have been rising steadily over the past 10 years, and liver cirrhosis has been the main culprit. Previously, many English pubs closed at 11 p.m., which explained the country’s former moderate consumption figures. Now alcoholics across the land will have all day with the bottle.

Local Liquor
The warm pint. The English like to drink beer in pubs at cellar temperature out of pint glasses. They specialize in bitters and ales more so than lagers.

Number 2


Pure alcohol consumption: 9.9 liters per capita per year

The Finnish winter is grim by any standard. Living in temperatures that often hover around -30° (Celsius, mind you) and nearly 24 hours of darkness, wouldn’t you drink your face off? In the country that takes the second slot on our list of drinking countries, people drink to get drunk while staving off the cold. A 2005 study of Nordic countries  revealed that drinking is Finland’s top killer. According to the report, “alcohol killed more people aged 15 to 64 than cardiovascular disease or cancer.” So deep is the tradition of alcoholism that during a period of prohibition, Helsinki sailor and smuggler Algoth Niska (1888-1954) became a folk hero known as the “King of Smugglers.” His heroic feat, of course, was helping prohibition fall flat on its face.

Local Liquor
Vodka and Guinness. As in Russia, a subarctic climate has made Finland a vodka-drinking land. Finland also has a lot of Irish pubs, so a pint of Guinness is never too far away.

Number 1


Pure alcohol consumption: 14.2 liters per capita per year
Beer consumption: 131.1 liters per capita per year

In Ireland, binge drinking is the norm. And if you’ve ever been to a Saint Paddy’s Day parade, you’ll never doubt an Irish man’s ability to drink. According to a London Press Associated study, 48% of Irish men binge drink at least once a week, compared to 40% in England and 9% in France.

Over the years, beer has been marketed as an essential component of Irish life, which it most certainly is. Ireland is famous for its Guinness, the drunken slogan “Kiss Me, I’m Irish” and the Irish green that people wear on Saint Paddy’s Day. For better or worse, this is Ireland in the popular imagination: a Celtic land of drunken excess. And that’s why this Ireland is our No. 1 drinking country.

Local Liquor
Guinness or Harp lager.

(sursa: Askmen)


luni, 26 octombrie 2009

Top 10 Tehnologii care ne vor schimba viata

Biblioteca digitala

Avem super-conectivitate. Cum o folosim? Unii o vor utiliza pentru a afla ultimele barfe despre vedete, despre amorurile unora si silicoanele altora. Altii vor dori ceva mai mult si, pentru cei ca ei, accesul la cunoasterea umana transpusa in format digital va oferi cu adevarat cheia portii spre un univers fantastic. Imaginati-va, sa poti citi si studia (aproape) tot ce vrei, cand vrei! Biblia sau documente stravechi, romane, dar si cursuri universitare (toate cursurile de la MIT - Massachusetts Institute of Technology, una dintre cele mai respectate institutii de invatamant superior din lume, sunt acum accesibile online).
Transpunerea in format digital a cartilor progreseaza foarte repede: grandiosul proiect al Google, de a transpune milioane de carti in format electronic, ne apropie cu iuteala de era bibliotecii digitale la indemana oricui.

Terapii revolutionare, cu ajutorul ingineriei genetice

Medicii cunosc sute de boli a caror cauza este genetica - altfel spus, soarta respectivilor oameni e deja pecetluita, scrisa nu in stele, ci genele lor. Defectele genetice pot duce la malformatii grave sau la dezvoltarea unor boli cronice invalidante. Dar malformatiile care azi se trateaza chirugical sau bolile cronice carora nu li se pot trata decat efectele, nu si cauzele, sunt in prezent obiectul unor cercetari intense pentru specialistii in terapie genica. Acestia lucreaza pentru a pune la punct metode care sa "dreaga" genele defecte, practic intervenind, astfel, in destin.
Celulele stem sunt o alta promisiune miraculoasa pentru viitor. Capabile sa se transforme in orice al fel de celule, celulele stem sunt vazute azi ca o materie prima din care se poate crea aproape orice tip de organ sau tesut. Celulele stem embrionare sunt dificil de obtinut, folosirea lor ridica probleme etice si nu este autorizata. Ceva mai usor de procurat sunt celulele stem adulte, mai ales ca, in urma cercetarilor intense din ultimii ani, s-au descoperit mai multe surse de astfel de celule, unele chiar neasteptate.
Inca si mai promitatoare este metoda inductiei sau a reprogramarii, cea prin care celule deja diferentiate pot fi "intoarse din drum": ele sunt extrase dintr-un anumit tesut al corpului uman (cel mai adesea din piele) si pot fi "convinse" (cu metode ce tin de ingineria genetica) sa se intoarca la un stadiu mai "copilaresc" al dezvoltarii lor: sa devina celule stem pluripotente (in stare sa se transforme in orice tip de celula, in functie de conditiile in care sunt crescute in laborator). Desi metodele de obtinere a celulelor stem induse sunt inca laborioase, faptul ca se descopera intruna noi surse de astfel de celule si noi metode de reprogramare ne apropie de momentul in care boli grave, precum diabetul si cancerul, vor deveni usor de vindecat.

Internet wireless pentru toti, peste tot

Este undeva departe de casa, intr-un loc salbatic, si vrei sa-ti verifici alarma locuintei, ca sa vezi daca e totul in ordine? Va fi posibil peste cateva decenii, cand internetul ar putea fi pretutindeni. In Antarctica, in mijlocul Saharei, pe un varf himalaian - oriunde vei putea avea acces la internet wireless: asa isi imagineaza internautii viitorul. Va fi, categoric, ceva care ne va schimba viata, desi nu neaparat - sau nu numai - in bine. Asta e, binefacerile civilizatiei vin la pachet cu neplaceri mai mari sau mai mici. In cazul de fata, va deveni din ce in ce mai greu sa te desprinzi de civilizatie si sa te relaxezi, atunci cand tehnologia moderna va invada si cele mai ferite ascunzisuri ale planetei.


O lume plina de roboti rapizi, precisi, gata oricand de treaba - asta e visul (sau cosmarul…) oamenilor care se gandesc intens la viitor. Nu masinarii cu brate robotice - acestea sunt deja banale - ci roboti integral mobili, care se vor deplasa de colo-colo, facand tot felul de treburi. Insusi autoturismul personal va deveni un robot pe care-l poti trimite sa-ti aduca de la supermarket cumparaturile pe care un alt robot, miscandu-se agil si neobosit prin depozitul urias, ti le-a adunat - dupa o lista transmisa in prealabil - si le-a pregatit la usa, gata de a fi livrate.

Energie solara multa, ieftina, la indemana tuturor

Fata de cat de mult soare avem, folosim revoltator de putin. Marea cotitura in vietile noastre polua(n)te se va produce atunci cand energia electrica obtinuta prin conversia energiei solare ne va acoperi necesitatile de consum macar in proportie de jumatate.
Metoda cea mai directa, transformarea energiei solare direct in energie electrica, prin intermediul celulelor fotovoltaice, inca e costisitoare, dar nu va mai fi mult timp asa: oamenii de stiinta estimeaza ca, peste aproximativ un deceniu, energia electrica din surse solare va ajunge la acelasi cost cu energia electrica produsa conventional si distribuita prin retea. Panourile fotovolatice vor deveni echipamente standard pentru constructiile noi si, astfel, casele noastre se vor alimenta singure cu energie o mare parte a zilei.

Location-Based Computing si realitatea augmentata

Mergi pe strada, vezi o cladire care iti atrage atentia si te intrebi ce-o fi? Indreapta spre ea telefonul mobil si vei afla indata despre ce e vorba. Daca e un monument, se vor afisa numaidecat niste informatii despre el sau vei fi directionat spre un site dedicat lui. Daca e vorba despre o cladire de birouri, unde functioneaza felurite companii, vei afla cate ceva despre afacerile pe care le desfasoara. E asa-numitul location-based computing, care va functiona avand la baza o retea conectata la servere burdusite cu coordonate geografice, alaturi de serverele cu adrese internet.

Printarea tridimensionala

Abia astept sa vad chestia asta! In loc de a cumpara un obiect gata facut, de la magazin, vei putea descarca de pe net un proiect si, cu ajutorul propriei tale imprimante 3-D, il vei fabrica acasa! Daca te tin balamalele creativitatii, vei face tu insuti proiecte pe care sa le vinzi.
Ce de mai artisti si mesteri o sa apara! (Nu prea stiu ce se va intampla cu magazinele, atunci cand oricine isi va putea fabrica acasa jucarii, farfurii si bibelouri dupa propriile idei.)

Legea lui Moore

In 1965, unul dintre fondatorii companeie Intel a afirmat ca ne putem astepta ca puterea calculatoarelor sa se dubleze aproape an de an. Unii nu l-au crezut. Timp de peste doua decenii, fizicieni si informaticieni au stabilit limite ale cresterii puterii procesoarelor, iar industria procesoarelor le-a dovedit ca se inselau.

Nici in ziua de azi, nimeni nu stie daca legea lui Moore sa va mai dovedi valabila doar cateva luni sau cateva sute de ani. Pana una alta, puterea procesoarelor creste neincetat, computerele devin tot mai performate si fac lucruri care in urma cu 30 de ani erau de neimaginat si pe care adversarii legii lui Moore le socoteau absolut imposibile. Baze de date uriase, proiectare pe calculator, modelari matematice, animatie computerizata… e clar, legea lui Moore inca e valabila.

Clonarea terapeutica

Dincolo de povestile de groaza despre clone umane si animale, se afla o promisiune fascinanta: intr-o zi, orice om care va avea nevoie de un transplant pentru a supravietui, va avea sansa sa primeasca organul salvator de care are nevoie. Si nu asteptand sa apara un donator miraculos (lucru care, in cele mai multe cazuri, inseamna, practic, a astepta sa moara cineva), ci "comandandu-si", pur si simplu, organul necesar la un "atelier" specializat: un laborator in care, pornind de la celulele proprii pacientului, vor fi fabricate, prin clonare, organe si tesuturi noi.
Va fi astfel rezolvata si o alta mare problema, aceea a respingerii transplantelor; organele noi, clonate, vor fi pe deplin compatibile cu organismul pacientului, de vreme ce sunt fabricate din propriile sale celule. Va fi o era a miracolelor in medicina. Organele atinse de cancer, distruse de boli cronice ori de accidente vor putea fi inlocuite cu replici clonate, practic identice, dar sanatoase.

Economia bazata pe hidrogen

Azi, economiile tarilor lumii se bazeaza, practic, pe petrol si alti combustibili fosili; de multe ori, pe petrol din import, ceea ce inseamna dependenta de surse externe (sau, mai urat spus, inseamna a fi la mana celor care vand petrol). In plus, economia bazata pe petrol inseamna poluare masiva, acea poluare careia ii datoram atatea dintre relele societatii contemporane. Sa nu mai avem nevoie de petrol - ce vis frumos!
Ei bine, visul s-ar putea implini atunci cand vom putea folosi hidrogenul si face din el temelia economiei. Scindand apa in moleculele sale componente, am obtine hidrogen si oxigen. Hidrogenul poate fi ars - si produsul arderii ar fi tot apa! - generand energie termica, sau ar putea fi utilizat in celule de hidrogen, care produc electricitate. Hidrogenul este cel mai abundent element in Univers asa ca… de ce nu? Daca economia bazata pe hidrogen e inca la stadiul de vis, e pentru ca hidrogenul are o mare problema: e dificil de stocat. Dar, cu atatea minti luminate care lucreaza la rezolvarea problemei, s-ar putea ca, in cateva decenii, sa avem o solutie. Deja exista progrese: unii au gasit solutii surprinzatoare, idei ingenioase care, intr-o zi, ne-ar putea scoate din criza energetico-ecologica in care ne zbatem.



duminică, 25 octombrie 2009

Top 10 Books of all times

10. Middlemarch George Eliot
Middlemarch is considered by many scholars to be one of the most important novels of the Victorian era. It was written by George Eliot (pen name of Mary Anne Evans) and was first published in 1871 to 1872. It is set in the 1830s in Middlemarch, a fictional provincial town in England, based on Coventry.
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9. The Stories of Anton Chekhov Anton Chekhov
Anton Chekhov was a Russian short story writer and playwright. He was born in Taganrog, southern Russia, on 29 January 1860. His originality consists in an early use of the stream-of-consciousness technique, later employed by Virginia Woolf and other modernists, combined with a disavowal of the moral finality of traditional story structure.
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8. In Search of Lost Time Marcel Proust
I appreciate the great artistic merit in Proust’s writing, but I have to be honest and say that I have never managed to get more than half way through the first book of this multiple-book novel. I found it extremely slow paced and boring. This is Proust’s most prominent work, it is popularly known for its extended length and the notion of involuntary memory, the most famous example being the “episode of the madeleine” in which he describes in great (boring) detail, eating a madeleine dipped in tea.
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7. The Great Gatsby F. Scott Fitzgerald
I agree with the inclusion of this book – it is one of my favorites and one of the best examples of Fitzgerald’s writing. The Great Gatsby is a tale from the Jazz age of Gatsby – a wealthy man whose life is surrounded by mystery. A brilliant read.
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6. Hamlet William Shakespeare
It is no surprise that Mr Shakespeare is on the list. I am not sure that I would have picked Hamlet as his best book, but who am I to debate 125 brilliant authors? Hamlet is a tragedy by William Shakespeare, probably written between 1599 and 1601. The play, set in Denmark, recounts how Prince Hamlet exacts revenge on his uncle for murdering Hamlet’s father, the King, gaining the throne through this treachery, and subsequently marrying his mother.
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5. The Adventures of Huckleberry Finn Mark Twain
Huckleberry Finn Pix
It is good to see such a great book for the younger generation on the list. Huckleberry Finn is commonly accounted as one of the first Great American Novels. It is also one of the first major American novels ever written using Local Color Regionalism, or vernacular, told in the first person by the eponymous Huckleberry “Huck” Finn, best friend of Tom Sawyer (hero of three other Mark Twainbooks).
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4. Lolita Vladimir Nabokov
Lolita was first written in English and published in 1955 in Paris. The novel is both internationally famous for its innovative style and infamous for its controversial subject: the book’s narrator and protagonist Humbert Humbert becoming sexually obsessed with a twelve-year-old girl named Dolores Haze.
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3. War and Peace Leo Tolstoy
War and Peace was first published from 1865 to 1869 in Russkii Vestnik, which tells the story of Russian society during the Napoleonic Era. It is usually described as one of Tolstoy’s two major masterpieces (the other being Anna Karenina) as well as one of the world’s greatest novels.
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2. Madame Bovary Gustave Flaubert
Madame Bovary Fronte
Madame Bovary was attacked for obscenity by public prosecutors when it was first serialised in La Revue de Paris between 1 October 1856 and 15 December 1856, resulting in a trial in January 1857 that made it notorious. The novel focuses on a doctor’s wife, Emma Bovary, who has adulterous affairs and lives beyond her means in order to escape the banalities and emptiness of provincial life. Though the basic plot is rather simple, even archetypal, the novel’s true art lies in its details and hidden patterns.
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1. Anna Karenina Leo Tolstoy
Pevear Karenina
Anna Karenina is widely regarded as a pinnacle in realist fiction, Tolstoy considered this book his first true novel. Although most Russian critics panned the novel on its publication as a “trifling romance of high life,” Fyodor Dostoevsky declared it to be “flawless as a work of art.” Tolstoy’s style in Anna Karenina is considered by many critics to be transitional, forming a bridge between the realist and modernist novel.
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(sursa:Listverse )


vineri, 16 octombrie 2009

Top 10 tari in materie de bauturi alcoolice

10. Tailanda
In afara de faptul ca tailandezii sunt recunoscuti in lume pentru mancarurile lor traditionale relativ ciudate la prima privire, dar fabuloase dupa ce treci de aspectul fizic, ne surprind si cu whiskey-ul lor din orez, numit si Lao Khao, bautura alcoolica preferata a localnicilor. Nu este ceva neobisnuit sa primesti o invitatie din partea unui localnic la un pahar de Lao Khao, insa aceasta bautura trebuie consumata cu masura, avand in vedere continutul ridicat de alcool.

Poze PozeMH - bauturi alcoolice
9. Ghana
Desi aflata pe un continent deseori asociat cu violenta si problemele politice, Ghana surprinde prin felul primitor al oamenilor. In cazul in care esti barbat este foarte probabil sa primesti o invitatie in casa unui localnic, pentru a servi vin din palmier, invitatie ce nu ar trebuit neonorata. Cu un continut de alcool de 95%, aceasta bautura este obtinuta prin distilare - o tehnica simpla dar prin care vinul de palmier este obtinut in forma sa cea mai pura.
Poze PozeMH - bauturi alcoolice
8. Brazilia
Bautura obtinuta din trestie de zahar, ce poata fi gasita la mai toate magazinele locale din Brazilia, se numeste Chacaca, si este o alternativa mai putin costisitoare fata de alte bauturi alcoolice. Este folosita si pentru obtinerea bauturii neoficiale a Braziliei, Caipirinha.
Poze PozeMH - bauturi alcoolice
7. Coreea de Sud
Daca ajungi printre coreeni, nu ezita la invitatia de a servi Soju si Dongdongju. Soju este o bautura obtinuta din cartofi dulci, foarte simplista si aproape fara gust dar consumarea acesteia face parte dintr-o traditie veche a localnicilor. Gazde primitoare, coreeni isi vor umple paharul de fiecare data cand se goleste.
Poze PozeMH - bauturi alcoolice
6. Mexic
In urma cu 2000 de ani, aztecii au extras sucul agavelor si l-au numit Octli. Din acesta au rezultat bauturi precum Tequilla, Mezcal si Pulgue. Va puteti desfata cu oricare dintre acestea insa nu va lasati dus de val!
Poze PozeMH - yyyyyyy
5. Etiopia
Candva bautura preferata a regilor etiopieni, Tej este un vin local delicios, obtinut din miere si fermentat folosind un arbust denumit de localnici gesho. Daca doriti sa consumati aceasta bautura intrebati un localnic pentru a afla unde gasiti Tej obtinut din miere pura, fara adaos de zahar.
Poze PozeMH - yyyyyyy
4. Irlanda
Daca ajungeti la un pub irlandez traditional, intrebati de Poitin, o bautura alcoolica distilata ce a redevenit legala abia dupa 336 de ani, in anul 1997. Consumati Poitin cu masura, pentru a evita neplacerile cauzate de aparitia unui spiridus irlandez in fata ochilor.
Poze PozeMH - yyyyyyy
3. Ungaria
Pe taramurile umplute de istorie ale Ungariei puteti gasi bautura cunoscuta sub numele de palinca, obtinuta din prune, mere, pere sau nuci. Gasita la majoritatea barurilor aflate in orasele mari ale Ungariei, palinca este o bautura simpla, din fructe fermentate.
Poze PozeMH - yyyyyyy
2. Japonia
Cu un continut de alcool de 17%, Sake a facut parte din ritualurile japoneze timp de multe secole. Servit cald sau rece in functie de seon, Sake este de mai multe feluri: Nigori, Nama si Sake obisnuit. Pentru cei mai aventurosi, recomandam Shochu, o bautura cu un continut de alcool de 30%.
Poze PozeMH - yyyyyyy
1. Grecia
Desi daca vizitati aceasta tara veti fi captivat de peisajul mirific incarcat cu istorie, ar trebui sa incercati si cateva dintre bauturile locale. Ouzo este obtinut prin distilare din struguri, servit in containere mici de sticla numite karafakia si de obicei baut diluat. De asemeni, puteti incerca Tsikoudia sau versiunea sa mai aromata, Tsipouro.
Poze PozeMH - yyyyyyy

(sursa: Metalhead)


Top 10 Laptopuri din toate timpurile

1. Primul laptop: Epson HX-20 (1981)

La fel cum Tin Lizzie a fost pentru automobile, Epson HX-20 a fost primul portabil ce avea un pret permisiv pentru populatie si era destul de simplu. Desi au existat cativa stramosi – incluzand aici calculatorul Osborne , HX-20 este recunoscut a fi primul laptop, in adevaratul sens al cuvantului. Cantarea numai 1.58 kg si ingloba o baterie de cadmiu ce oferea 50 de ore de utilizare la o singur incarcare. Desigur, ecranul incorporat era un LCD monocrom, capabil sa afiseze numai patru linii de text odata. De asemenea, avea o carcasa maronie de plastic ce inchidea tastatura, o imprimanta matriceala si un hard disc bazat pe o banda de casetofon.
Insa procesoarele duale Hitachi 6301 rulau la 614 Hz, avea 16K RAM, iar porturile seriale si RS-232 ii captiva pe admiratori. Datorita suportului acestora din urma, HX-20 s-a vandut in peste 250 de mii de exemplare. Pentru contabilii de birou si profesionistii „colectarii datelor” pentru care Epson isi promova bijuteria, aceasta din urma reprezenta implinirea unui vis.

2. Primul laptop popular: Tandy TRS-80 Model 100 (1983)

Anii 1980 au reprezentat un succes pentru pasionatii de calculatoare, unul dintre motive constituindu-l Tandy TRS-80 Model 100. Desi familia amricana obisnuita nu s-a imbulzit la magazinul RadioShack din colt pentru a achizitiona o statie de lucru Micro Executive Workstation, a fost primul laptop care a devenit cunoscut printre cei ce au adoptat timpuriu un calculator portabil.
Avand numai 1.72 kg si costand 800 de dolari, se asemana oarecum cu HX-20 insa beneficia de un LCD mai mare (240 x 64 puncte). TRS-80 Model 100 opera cu 4 baterii AA pana la 18 ore. Nu beneficia de memorie interna (un casetofon extern sau un floppy drive de 5.25 inci putea fi atasat, la un cost suplimentar), insa oferea o multime de aplicatii, incluzand un editor de text, o carte de adrese, o agenda si o aplicatie telecom penru comunicatiile modem, mult indragita de catre reporterii publicatiilor care puteau in sfarsit redacta stirile de la fata locului. Legenda spune ca firmware-ul pentru TRS-80 Model 100 a fost primul mare proiect de codare al lui Bill Gates, inainte ca acesta sa se apuce de construirea unui imperiu.

3. Primul PC portabil ce rula un procesor 386: Compaq Portable 386 (1987)

Daca sunteti surprinsi sa regasiti acest monstru pe lista, trebuie sa admitem ca nu era un laptop in adevaratul sens al cuvantului, insa era destul de portabil si a insemnat o piatra de temelie.
In ciuda pretului de 12 mii de dolari, Compaq Portable 386 a devenit unul dintre cele mai sarbatorite portabile din toate timpurile: era primul care utiliza puternicul procesor Intel 80386, a carui arhitectura fusese incoronata drept standard pentru operarea pe 32 de biti si asa avea sa ramana pentru urmatorii 20 de ani.
Portable 386 nu era deloc atractiv. Un calculator de lansare, arata mai degraba ca o valiza cu un maner subtire. Cantarea aproape 9 kg, tastatura trebuia sa fie montata separat si nu beneficia de o baterie. Ecranul plat, monocrom avea o nuanta orange tipatoare.
Insa cipul Intel 80386DX-20, operand la 20 Mhz, ii oferea acestui dispozitiv sex-appeal-ul necesar. Atunci cand a fost lansat, era cel mai rapid calculator portabil de pe planeta.

4. Primul Tablet PC convertibil: GriD Systems 2260 (1992)

Asadar, ati crezut ca recunoasterea scrisului de mana reprezinta o inventie a noului mileniu? GriD Systems Convertible model 2260 a fost primul notebook cu un ecran senzitiv ce putea pivota si intepeni impotriva tastaturii pentru a fi utilizat pe post de tableta. Modelul 2260 benefica de un procesor Intel 386; iar mai scumpul model 2270 continea un procesor 486. In timp ce modelele ‚decapotabile’ nu au fost disponibile pentru mult timp, acestea ua pregatit scena penru urmatoarele incercari. Convertible era o unitate rigida cu o carcasa subtire de magneziu. Avea un ecran dragut pentru acele vremuri (un VGA monocrom de 10.5 inci).
Insa era prea greu pentru a fi purtat prea mult, iar introducerea datelor utilizand sistemul de operare Windows for Pen era mai putin confortabil pentru ca dispozitiul sa atraga mai multi adepti. Lucrurile s-au schimbat in momentul in care Microsoft a introdus Tablet Operating System in 2002 iar recunoasterea scrisului de mana s-a imbunatatit odata ce s-a conturat o piata de nisa pentru dispozitivele ce ofereau aceasta facilitate.

5. Primul laptop subtire si stralucitor: DEC HiNote Ultra (1994)

Va iubiti laptopul ultra-portabil si carcasa acestuia subtire? Ii puteti multumi corporatiei DEC (Digital Equipment Corporation), producatorul statiilor de lucru si serverelor in anii 1980, pentru introducerea unui nou standard pentru calculatoarele mici si usoare.
DEC HiNote Ultra masura aproape 1 inci inaltime si cantarea 5 kg. Beneficia de un ecran monocrom de 11.1 inci, 4 MB de memorie RAM, un hard disc de 340 MB, un dispozitiv cu bila pe post de maus, iar in privinta procesorului, se putea opta pentru unul din urmatoarele procesoare Intel: 486 SX33, 486 DX2/50 sau 486 DX4/75. Sistemul de operare era Windows for Workgroups 3.11, ruland pe MS-DOS 6.22. Dispunea de o singura aplicatie business, Lotus Organizer si era incarcat cu CompuServe pentru a naviga pe ceva nou aparut, Internetul.

6. Primul notebook cu un touchpad: Apple PowerBook 520 (1994)

In loc de biluta, dispozitivul standard pentru ‚pointing’ in cadrul PowerBook 520 era ceea ce Apple denumea ‚trackpad’. Conceput de George Gerpheide in 1987, touchpad-ul necesa atingerea si miscarea varfurilor degetelor pentru a muta cursorul de pe ecran. Dupa introducerea acesuia in PowerBook 520, touchpad-ul a creat un nou standard in vietile noastre. Si deloc surprinzator, touchpad-urile Apple beneficiaza inca de cele mai bune touchpad-uri. Spre exemplu, sunt ingurii care va pwermit sa efectuati scroll in pagina, atingand in orice punct membrana, cu doua degete.

7. Primul laptop care utiliza o baterie Lithiu Ion: Toshiba Portege T3400 (1995)

Atunci cand Toshiba Portege T3400 si-a facut debutul, putina valva a fost facuta in legatura cu bateriile lithiu ion, utilizate pentru prima data in cadrul unui laptop. Insa introducerea calculatorului a semnificat inceperea unei noi ere pentru baterii, una extrem de buna pentru fanii notebook-urilor.
Bateriile lithiu ion rezistau mai mult timp si erau mai usoare, calitati imperios necesare utilizatorilor de calculatoare portabile. Oricum, deoarece erau subiectele supraincalzirii, milioane de laptop-uri au fost chemate pana in prezent din aceasta cauza. Insa majoritatea utilizatorilor a ufost neafectati si continua sa beneficieze de o tehnologie care se imbunatateste in fiecare luna. Durata e viata a bateriei lui Toshiba Portege T3400, acum 12 ani de zile? In jur de 4 ore. O cifra deloc rea, chiar si pentru un laptop de 1.81 kg cu un ecran monocrom dual-scan.

8. Primul Laptop wireless: Apple iBook (1999)

In 1999, Apple a introdus Airport – o tehnologie inovatoare ce i-a permis lui iBook sa devina primul laptop capabil sa trimita e-mailuri si sa navigheze pe Internet wireless. Apple a intrecut alti producatori cu mai mult de un an de zile cu imlementarea standardului 802.11b Wi-Fi.

9. Primul notebook de gaming: WindowPC’s Sting 917X2 (2005)

Pana foarte recent, laptopurile erau atat de rigide in privinta jocurilor incat pana nu demult fanii Doom erau fericiti numai daca isi externalizau furiile in cadrul sistemelor desktop. Gamerii impatimiti inca sunt suparati ca experientele de gaming de pe laptopuri sunt inferioare celor resimtite pe statiile fixe, insa laptopurile si-au recastigat respectul si un nou numar de utilizatori au adoptat mobilitatea odata cu aparitia procesarii dual-core.
WindowPC Sting 917X2 a fost primul sosit in acest sens, beneficiind de un procesor AMD Athlon 64 x 2. La vremea la cre majoritatea producatorilor de notebook-uri ofereau un singur brand de card video pentru produsele din portofoliu, Sting oferea consumatorilor posibilitatea de a alege intre trei modele de varf. Cantarind 5.12 kg, in curand a fost urmat de notebook-urile Alienware Area-51.

10. Primul PC Killer: Apple MacBook Pro (2006)

Hatfields si McCoys. Trump si O’Donnell.Apple si Microsoft. In ultimul meci al invidiei, o victorie clara s-a conturat. Anul trecut, notebook-ul Macook Pro a devenit primul Apple PC care a adoptat procesoare Intel si a devenit astfel primul notebook Apple care ruleaza Windows. La scurt timp dupa ce a introdus MacBook Pro, Apple a adus si Boot Camp, un utilitar usor de utilizat care permite comutarea intre cele doua sisteme de operare. Odata ce Apple a reusit sa elimine barierele care o impiedicau sa adopte un sistem de operare Windows, va reusi sa convearga destui fani pentru a putea deveni un adversar de temut pentru Microsoft? Viitorul va delibera. Cine sunt castigatorii intre timp? Noi, consumatorii.

(sursa: Link.md)